Journal of Mediterranean Cities <p>"Journal of Mediterranean Cities" is dedicated to focusing on habitat studies and challenges facing our cities. The journal provides science-led strategic insight and guidance for sustainable and resilient cities, with a particular focus on the Mediterranean regions. Topics draw on scientific knowledge and research to make regional policies and practices as future-proof as possible. The Schools of Architecture and Urbanism are considered as potential driving forces and hubs for the profound science-led transformation and integration in the region, and thus, the Journal aims to bring together schools of Architecture and Urban Studies from different regions, in one platform.</p> en-US <p>This Journal is published through an <a href="">Open Journal Systems </a>as part of the <a href="">Public Knowledge Project </a>(PKP).</p> <p>This Journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International <a href="">(CC BY)</a> </p> (Dr. Husam R. Husain) (Dr. Rokhsaneh Rahbarianyazd) Mon, 09 Oct 2023 09:33:25 +0300 OJS 60 Use of Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning to Measure Superficial Weathering Damage on the Façade of Hanfelden Castle, Austria <p><em>Hanfelden Castle is one of the few Renaissance castles in Austria, which were subsequently hardly redesigned and changed since the tower building from the 14<sup>th</sup> century, and the extension in the 16<sup>th</sup> century to the today's appearance. This includes the façade with plaster layers from the 16<sup>th</sup> to the 18<sup>th</sup> century on the south and west side. Under these conditions, the concept for future scientific research of the object should essentially cover two needs: On the one hand, a collection of 3D basic data as complete as possible should be created for further work with the help of geospatial-technological methods, and on the other hand, methodological-technical expertise should also be built up (no substantial investigations have been undertaken in this direction). Additionally, and with regard to the determination of mostly conservation measures- the façade should be preserved - it has been important to check the façade made of plaster, natural stone or brick for the extent of superficial damage - such as weathering, flaking, bulging or bending. Therefore, non-contact 3D measuring systems are compared and applied as an alternative to visual inspection using standard cherry pickers or scaffolding. These so-called geospatial technologies applied in this study include methodological aspects of terrestrial photogrammetry, UAV assisted photogrammetry, and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). This study used historical data/recordings and photogrammetric results from 1986 as well as newer techniques from the structure from motion (SfM) method (2019, 2022) and terrestrial laser scanning (2019, 2022). The different data recording methods and different result data in a multi-temporal and multi-sensoral approach, comparable for the changes to the facade, were a challenge for the study. Despite the different methodological approaches of the technologies used, the overarching goals of the study were, on the one hand, to detect and map the damage to the facade that has become increasingly apparent over the years. On the other hand, it has been shown that the applied 3D methods used (individually or in combination) represent a time-saving and cost-effective alternative to visual examinations using lifting platforms. The data sets obtained in the campaigns described should be homogenized and summarized in the sense of a historical BIM and serve as a basis for further work on the object. The focus was on multi- and interdisciplinarity as well as on taking into account the needs of science to science and science to public dissemination.</em></p> Wolfgang Sulzer, Josef Gspurning, Viktor Kaufmann, Robert Fuerhacker, Justin Catau, Fabian Wack, Dominic Held Copyright (c) 2023 Wolfgang Sulzer, Josef Gspurning, Viktor Kaufmann, Robert Fuerhacker, Justin Catau, Fabian Wack, Dominic Held Sun, 08 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0300 The Landscape Urban Planning Approach for Improving Urban Air Quality, Case Study of Algiers, Algeria <p><em>Gardens and urban parks are areas of great importance for the support of the urban ecosystem, in addition to their psychological and therapeutic values; they provide the urban environment with a large amount of oxygen. Trees produce oxygen through the operation of photosynthesis; one hectare of eucalyptus tree annually produces oxygen for 37 to 80 people, and absorbs 25, 000 kg of carbon dioxide for the same period of time. Wooded zone in urban areas significantly improve and purify the quality of the air that we breathe and make living environments healthier. A recent study carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO) revealed that the MENA region (Middle East and North Africa) is one of the most polluted in the world, air polluted by particulate matter smaller than 2.5µm (PM2.5). For the case of Algiers, measurements were taken during the first two months of the year 2023 by the station of the United States Embassy in Algiers, showed that daily average of 14 µm/m3 for particulate matter less than 2.5 µm/m3 and a daily average of 50 for the IQA, air quality index. According to the US EPA's NAAQS, any measurement above 12.0 μg/m 3 (US AQI 50) may be hazardous to human health. Several factors of an exogenous and endogenous nature act directly on the quality of the air in large urban concentrations, CO2 emissions, modes and nature of urban mobility, uncontrolled urban sprawl. High population densities, urban forms, morphology, the size of cities, which getting larger and larger, the choice of urbanization models, and the surface of wooded areas, all are, factors responsible for air quality. This study will be particularly interested in the contribution of gardens, parks and wooded areas in improving air quality, and consequently on the quality of the living environment in urban areas. In this respect, and to understand the situation, we take the city of Algiers as a case study. The field work will allow us to understand in a qualitative and quantitative way the contribution of the tree and the choice of tree species, understanding co-relation between landscape architecture decision and results obtained on the urban air quality, and try to research on how it would possible to improve air quality in urban areas by using trees new essence.</em></p> Belgacem SOUICI Copyright (c) 2023 Belgacem SOUICI Sun, 08 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Spatial-Functional Organization of a Contemporary Apartment in Serbia <p><em>The expansion of residential construction has marked the last twenty years in Serbia. Contemporary housing construction is popularly called “investor construction”, and it is based on the investor’s influence on achieving the greatest possible capacity in relation to the area of the plot, the largest possible area for sale, as many apartments as possible per floor, the largest possible dimensions of the building on the plot, and the largest possible number of rooms within the smallest possible total square footage. The research’s aim is to discover how the aforementioned effects manifest themselves in the spatial-functional organization of the units. The analysis is performed on the case studies of residential construction in the largest urban areas of Belgrade, Novi Sad, and Nis. The findings of this research show that different authors repeat the same functional organization regardless of the location where they are constructed.</em></p> Vladana Petrovic, Branislava Stoiljković, Nataša Petković, Hristina Krstić Copyright (c) 2023 Vladana Petrovic, Branislava Stoiljković, Nataša Petković, Hristina Krstić Sun, 08 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Urban Design Impact on Local Climate and its Consequences on Building Energy Demand in Morocco <p><em>Urban design has a profound impact on the local climate, which can result in changes in temperature distribution and energy demand. The Urban Heat Island (UHI), a well-documented issue where cities typically experience higher temperatures than the cooler rural surroundings that envelop them, is closely tied to urban design and its geometrical features. This increase in temperature can lead to increased energy consumption, particularly for air conditioning, as populations strive to maintain thermal comfort. Within this framework, this paper seeks to advance our comprehension of the influence of urban design on the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect and building energy requirements. It makes a valuable contribution to the expanding body of research in this field, offering insightful guidance on optimal urban design strategies tailored to diverse climate zones in Morocco. To achieve these goals, we explore multiple urban design scenarios incorporating variations in building heights, street aspect ratios, building layout configurations, and street orientations. We employ the Urban Weather Generator and EnergyPlus for our analysis, with the former enabling the generation of synthetic weather data that accounts for the UHI effect in urban contexts, and the latter facilitating building energy simulations. The simulation results reveal a wide-ranging hourly variation in Urban Heat Island (UHI) intensity, spanning from 11°C to -5°C across the cities under study. Among these cities, Ifrane, Marrakesh, and Fes exhibit the highest average annual UHI intensity. Incorporating UHI considerations into energy simulations has yielded notable outcomes. Low-rise buildings experience a reduction in total energy requirements, while mid-rise and high-rise buildings exhibit an increase. For instance, adopting an urban design scenario featuring 20-story buildings and a street aspect ratio of 0.33 led to a rise in total energy demands between 8% and 19%. Furthermore, the street aspect ratio (H/W) emerges as the primary driver of UHI, whereas street orientation and building layout exert the most substantial influence on building energy requirements. Inefficient building layouts result in a significant increase in building energy needs, ranging from 106% to 121%, while less energy-efficient street orientations lead to total energy needs escalating by 28% to 76%.</em></p> Asia Lachir, Hourakhsh Ahmad Nia Copyright (c) 2023 Asia Lachir, Hourakhsh Ahmad Nia Sun, 08 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Standalone University Campuses’ Outdoor Spaces: A case of the German International University, Egypt <p>This paper investigates the nature of university campuses’ outdoor spaces and some of the main important aspects and factors that contribute in achieving a successful campus. Through referring to several related researches, observing and mapping, an analysis and study of the German International University has been conducted. These have highlighted different dynamics and complexities. As it is located in a still not yet urbanized area, the German International University is considered one of the leading projects in its surrounding. A new concept was introduced, namely the “standalone” campus, accommodating all needed services, which are missing in its surrounding. This new concept is considered a solution for universities with similar circumstances and nature.</p> Sarah Mansour, Hussam Salama Copyright (c) 2023 Sarah Mansour, Hussam Salama Sun, 08 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Comparative Analysis between the Architecture of Bimaristans in Egyptian and Syrian during Mamluk’s Era <p><em>Bimaristans are a building type which emerged in the Islamic world equivalent to nowadays hospitals. Most of the Islamic architecture studies focus on mosques, then mausoleums. This makes the research field open for more studies on building types like baths, wekalat, etc. Bimaristans remain within the scope of structures that need more studies through comparatives and analytical analyses. This paper introduces comparative analysis between bimaristans in Cairo and Aleppo, with particular focus on those constructed during the Mamluk’s era. This comparison highlights the points of similarity between the concepts that influenced the designers by that time with respect to their different locations, surrounding context and historical background. Such factors caused to make distinguished differences that gave each location its unique identity. This research depends on inductive-deductive methodology; inductive by reading and explaining the architectural drawings of both case-studies, and deductive from the theories and researches that justifies the reasons lied behind the end architectural product. Consequently, analyses the comparative results. The study provides architects and scholars with a clear image about the unique private identity of each zone, although they stand on the same believes using analytical analyses of bimaristans. Hence, contemporary architects in the Arab world can recognize the spiritual concepts behind the architectural and planning dimensions of bimaristans’ discrete design, that they may use or re-use to regenerate new forms that reflect their local identity and satisfy local cultural needs. Also, the study clarifies the role of local artists in articulating such concepts using carved geometrical reliefs, in addition to the documentation role of decorating relieved texts on those structures.</em></p> Maha Ibrahim, Hala Asslan2, Mazen Nassef Copyright (c) 2023 Maha Ibrahim, Hala Asslan2, Mazen Nassef Sun, 08 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Networks, Cycles and Urban Metabolism. Mapping Critical Environment: Giugliano in Campania (Naples) as a Case Study <p><em>The waste areas in Giugliano intercept the continuity of infrastructure networks and the reticular dimension of ecological connections, returning a porous structure that crosses the urbanized areas. This condition inevitably overlaps the processes of land consumption still in progress. The process aimed to map this critical condition was based on the interaction of some analytical-specialist readings from different sources using multiple GIS tools. The process results are represented in a system of integrated maps that provide data relating to the crisis of five life cycles (ecosystems, production cycle, waste cycle, infrastructure and urban fabrics). These dynamics give us a heritage of socially, ecologically and economically disadvantaged landscapes with immense potential for adaptation, reuse and recycling projects. The research has revealed a distinctive geography of place, even at a larger scale, where materials and relationships constitute the structure of the territory. The contribution presented was intended to recount a process of knowledge and planning for an emblematic territory such as Giugliano in Campania, in which the role of mapping critical landscapes that become potential materials for a project of adaptation, reuse and recycling is central. To overcome the current critical situation, it is essential to recover the environmental frames still capable of narrating the territory and use them as a strategic resource for the creation of new urban landscapes and for a Strategic Plan focused on regeneration.</em></p> Francesco Stefano Sammarco, Anna Terracciano Copyright (c) 2023 Francesco Stefano Sammarco, Anna Terracciano Sun, 08 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0300 City Sediments in Beirut: An Urban Ecology Perspective <p><em>Cities are products of urbanization processes, economic changes, technology and climate change. Adversely, in specific contexts, they are affected by wars’ enduring physical effect, long after armed conflicts are over. Hence cities are perceived as dynamic organisms, in continuous change of spatial abandonment, neglect and regeneration process, unfolding a continuum of space and time. In tandem between urban ecology and the urban history specificities, this paper addresses Beirut as a case study in its actual condition, and the different representations of the informal resurgence of green areas. It follows a methodology of identification and mapping of the different urban sediments which constituted over time potential reservoirs for urban ecology. These include previous war demarcation line, train tracks traces, cemeteries, destroyed wheat silos following the 2020 port explosion and other liminal spaces. This approach brings in a new perspective for approaching urban ecology differently according to the urban contexts historiography</em></p> Nadine Hindi Copyright (c) 2023 Nadine Hindi Sun, 08 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0300